What is Diamond?                                                                                                        

Diamond is a rare, naturally occurring mineral composed of carbon. Each carbon atom in a diamond is surrounded by four other carbon atoms and connected to them by strong covalent bonds - the strongest type of chemical bond. This simple, uniform, tightly-bonded arrangement yields one of the most durable and versatile substances known.

Diamond is the hardest known natural substance. It is also chemically resistant and has the highest thermal conductivity of any natural material. These properties make it suitable for use as a cutting tool and for other uses where durability is required. Diamond also has special optical properties such as a high index of refraction, high dispersion, and high luster. These properties help make diamond the world's most popular gemstone and enable it to be used in specialty lenses where durability and performance are required.

Because diamond is composed of the element carbon, many people believe that it must have formed from coal. This is still taught in many classrooms - but it is not true!

Physical Properties

Color

A distinctly green color that ranges between bluish-green and slightly yellowish-green. Stones with a light tone or a low saturation should be called "green beryl" instead of emerald.

Clarity

Almost every natural emerald has eye-visible characteristics that can be inclusions, surface-reaching fractures, or healed fractures. Treatments to fill the fractures with oils, waxes, polymers, flux and other materials to reduce their visibility has been common practice for hundreds of years.

Luster

Vitreous

Diaphaneity

Transparent to translucent

Cleavage

One direction of imperfect cleavage

Durability

Emerald is very hard, but almost all specimens have inclusions and surface-reaching fractures that compromise their durability.

Mohs Hardness

7.5 to 8

Specific Gravity

2.7  to 2.8

 

Where do you find Emerald stone?

Today, most emerald production originates in four source countries: ColombiaZambiaBrazil, and Zimbabwe. These countries reliably produce commercial amounts of emeralds. Minor amounts of production or irregular production come from MadagascarNigeriaAfghanistanPakistanCanadaRussia, and a few other countries.

Starting in about 2015, significant amounts of emerald with exceptional color and clarity started to be exported from Ethiopia. An editorial on the JCK website speculated that these Ethiopian emeralds might be the greatest gem find in 100 years. [2]

Even though the conditions for the formation of emerald are very unlikely, the gem has been found in a diversity of rock types. In Colombia, the country that has supplied most of the world’s emeralds, black organic shale, and carbonaceous limestone, both sedimentary rocks, are the ores for many emerald deposits. The shale is thought to be the source of chromium, and the beryllium is thought to have been delivered by ascending fluids.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Physical Properties of Diamond

Chemical Classification

Native element - Carbon

Color

Most diamonds are brown or yellow in color. The jewelry industry has favored colorless diamonds or those that have color so subtle that it is difficult to notice. Diamonds in vivid hues of red, orange, green, blue, pink, purple, violet, and yellow are extremely rare and sell for high prices. A few white, gray, and black diamonds are also cut and used as gems. Most industrial-grade diamonds are brown, yellow, gray, green, and black crystals that lack the color and clarity to be a nice gem.

Streak

Diamond is harder than a streak plate. Its streak is known as "none" or "colorless"

Luster

Adamantine - the highest level of luster for a nonmetallic mineral.

Diaphaneity

Transparent, translucent, opaque.

Cleavage

Perfect octahedral cleavage in four directions.

Mohs Hardness

10. Diamond is the hardest known mineral. However, the hardness of the diamond is directional. It is the hardest parallel to its octahedral planes and softest parallel to its cubic planes.

Specific Gravity

3.4 to 3.6

Diagnostic Properties

Hardness, heat conductivity, crystal form, index of refraction, specific gravity and dispersion.

Chemical Composition

C (elemental carbon)

Crystal System

Isometric

Uses

Gemstones, industrial abrasives, diamond windows, speaker domes, heat sinks, low-friction micro bearings, wear-resistant parts, dies for wire manufacturing.


 

How Do Diamonds Form?

Diamonds are not native to Earth's surface. Instead, they form at high temperatures and pressures that occur in Earth's mantle about 100 miles below Earth's surface.

Most of the diamonds that have been discovered were delivered to Earth's surface by deep-source volcanic eruptions. These eruptions begin in the mantle, and on their way up they tear out pieces of mantle rock and deliver them to Earth's surface without melting. These blocks form the mantle are known as xenoliths. They contain diamonds that were formed at the high temperature and pressure conditions of the mantle.

People produce diamonds by mining the rock that contains the xenoliths or by mining the soils and sediments that formed as the diamond-bearing rocks weathered away.

 

Some diamonds are thought to form in the high-temperature/pressure conditions of subduction zones or asteroid impact sites. Some are delivered to Earth in meteorites. No commercial diamond mines have been developed in deposits with these origins.

Gem Diamonds vs. Industrial Diamonds

Gem diamonds are diamonds with color and clarity that make them suitable for jewelry or investment use. These diamonds are rare and make up a minor portion of worldwide diamond production. Gemstone diamonds are sold for their beauty and quality.

Natural diamond crystals have a specific gravity that ranges between approximately 3.4 to 3.6. This range exists because most diamonds contain impurities and have irregularities in their crystal structure. Gem-quality diamonds are the most perfect diamonds, with minimal impurities and defects. They have a specific gravity that is very close to 3.52.

Industrial diamonds are mostly used in cutting, grinding, drilling, and polishing procedures. Here, hardness and heat conductivity characteristics are the qualities being purchased. Size, clarity, color, and other measures of quality relevant to gemstones are not as important. Industrial diamonds are often crushed to produce micron-sized abrasive powders. Large amounts of diamonds that are of gemstone quality but have a shape or size that cannot be profitably cut enter the industrial diamond trade.

Diamond as a Gemstone

Diamonds are the world's most popular gemstones. Many times more money is spent on diamonds than on all other gemstones combined. Part of the reason for diamond's popularity is a result of its optical properties - or how it reacts with light. Other factors include its durability, fashion, custom, and aggressive marketing by diamond producers. Diamond serves as the birthstone for the month of April.

Diamonds have a very bright luster - the highest non-metallic luster - known as "adamantine." Their high luster gives them the ability to reflect a high percentage of the light that strikes their surface. This is one property that gives diamond gemstones their "sparkle." And, when a diamond is being fashioned into a gem, the facet angles are planned to reflect a maximum amount of light from its internal surfaces.

Diamond also has a high dispersion. As white light passes through a diamond, this high dispersion causes that light to separate into its component colors. Dispersion is what enables a prism to separate white light into the colors of the spectrum. This property of dispersion is what gives diamonds their colorful "fire."

Diamond Gemstone Quality

The quality of a diamond that has been faceted into a gem is primarily determined by four factors: color, cut, clarity, and carat weight. A standardized method of assessing diamond quality was developed in the 1950s by the Gemological Institute of America and is known as "The 4Cs of Diamond Quality"

Color: Most gem-quality diamonds range from colorless to slightly yellow, brown, or gray. The most highly regarded and valuable diamonds are those that are completely colorless. These are the ones sold for the highest prices. However, another category of a diamond gemstone is increasing in popularity. These are colored diamonds, which occur in a variety of hues including red, pink, yellow, orange, purple, bluegreen, and brown.

The value of colored diamonds is based upon the intensity, purity, and quality of their color. Those with a saturated, vivid color are called "fancy-color diamonds" or "fancies". On average, only one diamond in 10,000 has a color that earns the "fancy" designation. This rarity makes fancy-color diamonds extremely valuable. Some of them have sold at auction for over one million dollars per carat. They are some of the world's most valuable and spectacular diamonds.

Clarity: The ideal diamond is free from fractures and inclusions (particles of foreign material within the gem). These detract from the appearance of the gem and interfere with the passage of light. When present in large numbers, dark colors, obvious positions or sizes then will significantly degrade the appearance of a cut gem and lower its value. They can also reduce the strength of the stone.

Cut: The quality of design and craftsmanship used in cutting a diamond is what determines its appearance. The angles to which the facets are cut, the proportions of the design, and the quality of the polishing are what determine its face-up appearance, brilliance, scintillation, pattern, and fire. Ideal stones are perfectly polished to be highly reflective and emit a maximum amount of fire. Corresponding faceted faces are equal in size and identical in shape. And, the edges of each faceted face meet perfectly with each of its neighbors.

Carat: Diamonds are sold by the carat (a unit of weight equal to 1/5th of a gram or 1/142nd of an ounce). Small diamonds usually cost less per carat than larger stones of equal quality. This is because very small stones are very common and large stones are exceptionally rare.

What are the benefits of Diamond?

·         Diamond is the gem to improve the qualities of planet Venus.

·         It is hot in nature. It indicates love, marriage, colleague, prettiness, humility, honesty, harmony, dance, drama, actor, acting, enjoyment, magnetism, and relation with the opposite sex.

·         Diamond’s vibes can increase humility, genuineness, and attractiveness.

·         Its vibes can magnify charming personality and ease disturbed married life. Many times diamonds vibes release cause of divorce and separation.

·         Its vibes can also release a bad status and aggressive nature.

·         Its vibes reduce the involvement in illegal relations and may reduce financial loss too.

·         Its vibes can reduce the involvement in illegal relations of wearer’s spouse

·         Diamonds vibes may cure ovaries, breasts, reproductive systems, water, kidney, diabetes, urinary tract, throat, chin, cheeks, and skin-related elements.

·         Diamonds vibes can guide the right path and selection to a wearer in the business.

·         Diamond is valued by practitioners of music, arts, and culture and the good alignment of Venus planet is supposed to relieve the wearer of his/her personal and mental demons.

·         Artists, doctors, traders, and businessmen have been found to benefit the most from wearing this gemstone.

·         This brilliant gems vibes improves physical and mental health, prevents sexual diseases, increases endurance and helps in improving the wearer’s marital life.

·         After wearing, diamonds vibes will help to remove evil and fearful thoughts making wearer personality attractive and charming.

·         Diamonds vibes improve facial gleam and give more confidence which in turn open many ways to success

·         Its vibes give peace of mind and goodness in thoughts.

·         Its vibes amplify longevity and boost the figure of the wearer in community and family circles.

·         Diamonds vibes impart wearer with the motivation to implement their planned goals and shield their goals from evil eyes.

·         Diamonds vibes also facilitate to do excellent actions, meriting praise and applause.

·         Its vibes enhance the power to meet challenges bravely in life.

·         Its vibes can help those facing litigations, court cases, etc.

·         Diamonds vibes are connected with the decency of nature, optimism of thought, intuition, tranquility, and riches.

·         The crush (Bhasm) of diamonds has remedial and healing powers and is used for curing heart ailments and sexual weaknesses and malfunctioning.

·         Diamond can make its wearer an Alpha person.

 

·         Diamond can increase sexual attraction too.

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